Wearable Plasmonic Paperfluidics for Continuous Sweat Analysis

  • wearable, paper-based technology quantifies sweat and other biofluids
  • plasmonic sensors that detect analytes in concentrations < 1 µM
  • maintains accuracy under strain and high temperature



Existing sweat sensors rely heavily on biomacromolecules (for example, enzymes and antibodies) as primary elements for quantifying metabolites and hormones. Unfortunately, these sensors have limited shelf life and poor stability which compromises their performance. Furthermore, environmental changes such as fluctuations in temperature and humidity can cause problems.


This wearable microfluidic system is a plasmonic, paper-based technology that holds the ability to analyze sweat and other biofluids, continuously and simultaneously. This device can quantify sweat loss, sweat rate, and metabolites in sweat. Its plasmonic sensors are based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) and are label-free with the ability to identify analytes of interest via chemical “fingerprint” functionality. This technology has shown that simple and low-cost plasmonic papers allow for sensitive detection and quantification of uric acid in sweat at concentrations as low as 1 μM. The flow kinetics of paper microfluidic devices are well-defined and enable accurate quantification of sweat loss and sweat rate in real time. Reliable quantification can also be achieved when the device is exposed to strain and high temperatures.


  • High sensitivity and specificity for molecular biomarker quantification.
  • High stability and reliable performance under harsh environment.
  • Simultaneous sweat rate and metabolite quantification.
  • Low manufacturing costs for sweat sensors.


  • Research and development of human and animal biofluids.
  • Analysis of neuro-endocrine biomarkers in sweat, tear, urine and serum.
  • Wearable medicinal and pharmaceutical products and devices.

Stage of Development

As a proof of concept, we demonstrate that simple and low-cost plasmonic papers allow for the sensitive detection and quantification of uric acid in sweat at a low concentration of 1 μM.

Patent Status


Associated Publications

Mogera, U.; Guo, H.; Namkoong, M.; Rahman, M. S.; Nguyen, T.; Tian, L. Wearable Plasmonic Paper-based Microfluidics for Continuous Sweat Analysis, Science Advances, 2022, 8, eabn1736. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abn1736

Key Words

Wearable sensors, sweat quantitative analysis, plasmonic paper, paper-based microfluidics, sweat rate, metabolite quantification.

Contact Information

Name: Shyamala Rajagopalan

Email: SRajagopalan@tamu.edu

Phone: 979-862-3002