EMvelop: Minimally Invasive Deep Brain Stimulation Using Electromagnetic Waves

  • Can control both amplitudes and phases to achieve focal stimulation.
  • High modulation depth of 12V/m
  • High focality of 2.7cm deep in the brain tissue.


Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) has shown promise as a treatment for a multitude of neurological disorders, including Parkinson’s, depression and obsessive compulsive disorder. Current techniques of invasive and non-invasive DBS each come with their own set of challenges. Invasive methods can cause surgical complications, while current non-invasive methods suffer from diffuse focality and non-portability.


This technology proposes the use of two separate giga-hertz frequency electromagnetic waves differing from each other by a small frequency offset to modulate neurons for minimally-invasive DBS. Minimal invasiveness is achieved through the use of miniature antenna arrays that can be endocranially implanted to allow for continuous operation and can also help mitigate signal attenuation.

Benefits and Features

• Can control both amplitudes and phases to achieve focal stimulation.
• High modulation depth of 12V/m.
• High focality of 2.7cm deep in the brain tissue.
• Easily portable with compact antenna array design.

Market Potential / Applications

The EMvelop technology can be harnessed for modulation of other physiological markers arising from neural stimulation, such as cerebral blood flow, sleep EEG and excitability. This will expand therapeutic options available to a large number of patients with neurological and psychiatric disorders.
Developments and licensing status
This technology is available for licensing from Rice University.

Rice Researcher

Dr. Behnamm Aazhang is a Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Rice University. Dr. Aazhang’s research interests include signal and data processing, information theory, dynamical systems, and their applications to neuroengineering with focus in developing minimally invasive and non-invasive real-time closed-loop stimulation of neuronal systems to mitigate disorders such as epilepsy, Parkinson, depression, obesity, and mild traumatic brain injury.
Researcher web site: https://aaz.rice.edu/

Technology Relevant Papers
F. Ahsan, T. Chi, R.Cho, S. A. Sheth,W. Goodman, and B.Aazhang, “EMvelop stimulation: minimally invasive deep brain stimulation using temporally interfering electromagnetic waves”, J. Neural Eng. 19 (2022) 046005
Case # 2021-064
Key Words deep brain stimulation, temporal interference stimulation, electromagnetic wave propagation, heat analysis, algorithmic optimization, radio frequency
Inquiries to: techtran@rice.edu, (713) 348-8124

Contact Information

Name: Gauri Bhave

Email: gb30@rice.edu

Phone: 7133486272