Biomarkers for non-invasive detection and classification of prostate cancer

The expression levels of genes PCA3, MRC2 and S100A4 for the prognosis, stratification and prostate cancer monitoring using non-invasive methods.

The expression levels of genes PCA3, MRC2, and S100A4 for the prognosis, stratification, and prostate cancer monitoring using non-invasive methods.

Abstract

Three new biomarkers for the prognosis, stratification, and prostate cancer monitoring have been identified: PCA3, MRC2, and S100A4. These biomarkers could be detected by non-invasive methods, such as liquid biopsy, and be used as a component for kits and devices with the same purpose.

DESCRIPTION

Prostate cancer is one of the most common death causes worldwide, and one of the most frequently diagnosed tumors in males in Spain. In spite of that, diagnosis tools for their detection are lacking and there are no adequate genetic biomarkers: nowadays, PSA is the most common biomarker, despite the high percentage of false positives and false negatives.

Regarding treatment choice, there are no tools that can determine which treatment is the most effective for each patient. With it, the standard treatment is androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), which causes many hormone resistance cases. Despite existing a good initial response, after 18-24 months of ADT therapy, prostate cancer progresses to the castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) phase, which has 16 to 18 months survival rate.

To overcome that, three new genetic biomarkers PCA3, MRC2, and S100A4 have been identified. They can be used to detect, classify and/or prevent prostate cancer. PCA3 non-coding RNA is specific to prostatic tissue and is overexpressed early in prostate cancers; an overexpression of MRC2 indicates a higher extracellular matrix remodeling rate, which will ease further metastasis; and the S1004A gene is overexpressed when cancer is more aggressive and metastasis has already started.

In addition, the detection of these biomarkers can be performed using non-invasive methods, such as liquid biopsy, and would be ideal for the development of kits and devices for the prevention, diagnosis, and stratification of prostate cancer.

Funding